Industrial Revolution (from 1750)
The industrial revolution began in Great Britain with the invention and improvement of the steam engine for different applications. The presence of many commodities on home soil (coal), many new workers (former farm workers who lost their jobs), large outlets uniform products (textiles) for a large market (growing cities and colonies). Crafts, windmills, horses, manpower could be partly replaced by machines and large factories.
By producing products scale, the price fell and got more and more people access to the economy and growing prosperity. Innovative production methods were also required to supply the growing European population of food, clothing (textile industry) and other products. However, large groups of people lost jobs in the traditional sectors.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was both a political and economic democratization. More people could join the society and were given access to various products and services. However, there was a class society. Workers worked for very low wages and poor working conditions in the factories and the holders of capital (capitalists) strokes the profits. The industrial revolution created a social inequalities that even though it was during the feudal system. Serfs (contractors and laborers from the period of the industrial revolution) to make way for workers who were being exploited on a large scale. Landowners give way to powerful entrepreneurs (capitalists) who had economic and political power. On the other hand increased the need for better facilities and there was more prosperity for all. Working conditions improved through social legislation. There were children’s laws as the child wetje Van Houten (1874), labor laws (1919) and housing laws (1901).
The industrial revolution has three main stages:
The scaling up of production by the advent of the steam engine and steam turbine (1st Industrial Revolution, around 1850)
The internal combustion engine, petroleum, coal, transistor, steam turbines, power (AC and DC), steel (2nd industrial revolution in the late 19th century)
and with new means of communication, globalization, automation and digitization (3rd industrial revolution) took over the world’s production of goods and services increases dramatically, making the economy and global society changed dramatically.
Demographic transition, the three-phase model.
The industrial revolution was largely responsible for the demographic transition that occurred at different times in each country in different phases. Industrialization led to an improvement in health care, better hygiene, (including a working sewage system and better housing), better food, drinking water and more government control. In the age of the demographic transition, the mortality rate is relatively high and many children got their fifth birthday often. Also, people died at a younger age. The first phase of the transition is characterized by still high birth rates of the transition combined with falling death rates dramatically improved health.
In the second phase (the transitional phase), the birth rate is still very high, but the mortality rate plummeted. This creates a huge population birth by major surpluses. In the third phase, both the birth rate and the death rate plummeted by birth and new norms on family and society. The population growth at this stage hardly increase or may even decrease by aging population and fewer people in the reproductive lives. The natural increase is negative.
The Netherlands has a relatively long second phase (a century) compared to other Western European countries (including the influence of the Catholic Church and the adoption of strict views on contraception). By the late industrialization in the Netherlands entered the demographic transition later on. Netherlands and currently this is still quite a lot of young people in the population pyramid sit and what enters the aging somewhat delayed compared to the rest of Europe. Netherlands also experienced a very rapid increase in population growth by a decreasing death rate, a slowly declining birth rate and relatively long second transition phase. The result is that the Netherlands has a relatively high population density. The Netherlands currently is in the third phase (post-transition) which is characterized by a very low population, low fertility rates and low death rates, low natural growth and immigration. Eventually the population will increasingly rag and aging.
In the non-Western countries, you will see a very different development. In particular, African countries (Third World countries), you do see a drop in mortality rates through development and the export of medical expertise to poor countries (HIV-fighting, UNICEF and World Health Organisation), but kept the birth rate virtually unmatched. By improving medical facilities in the birth rate even increased. Many African countries will have a very high population growth and a very young population structure. A transition from the second to the third phase is sometimes barely mentioned. China and Indonesia and India have seen a rapidly rising population. The population is increasing in these countries are still, but less hard by birth and government policy. China has been using for years a family policy each family entitled to the first child.
Another difference in relation to birth control has to do with family planning. In western industrialized countries was the welfare of children which are no longer directly related to the economic contribution of the household. The economic benefit of children in agrarian societies has disappeared leaving families could give more attention to one or two children. The technological possibilities of contraception and other values (status, secularisation, emancipation, high marriage) made it possible to engage in family planning. In western industrialized societies having fewer children was attributed to economic motives and affective bonds with children were more important. In Third World countries remain economic motives for having children still important, higher infant mortality means that you should beget more children to keep your family economic position (status, fertility, low marriage age, arranged marriages). In addition, families in Third World countries can not rely on law (Children’s Act) provisions (retirement provisions) from the welfare state.
Overcrowding has major effects on society and the environment. Both the immediate environment and the global environment. Several governments try to limit the impact of overpopulation. However, this varies by country and politician. The concern for a declining population is still low (less large army, fewer taxpayers and thus less power) and the dangers of overpopulation is not seen by anyone. In Third World countries high population growth is properly welcomed. Already work most political leaders participated in the United Nations programs to curb population growth.
In western countries and the Netherlands will be the next time the aging population play a major role. This has an economic impact on the working population (20-67 year olds) to generate income to include the inactive (0-15, 67+ year olds). In addition, the life expectancy of the elderly, which transcends not only be more elderly people in the population, but the period of aging also becomes longer (double aging). This means an extra demographic pressure on social services.
Worldwide, you’ll see an increasing population growth in Third World countries, a stable growth in the Second World countries (BRIC countries) and a decline in population in the Western countries. The increasing growth of the population has an especially large impact on the environment. Also because this growth is accompanied by economic growth, which means an additional burden on the environment. This additional burden on the environment, especially in the second and third countries (African countries, Latin America and the BRIC countries) are at issue here because economic growth per capita will be the fastest.
A high population growth coupled with rising prosperity, the limits of what is naturally tenable limit. Overcrowding has to do with the relationship between livelihoods and population. The extent of growth of these funds will depend on the economic and political conditions in a country or region, and the ability to absorb the effects of growth (resistance / recording capacity of a country).
Population growth and environmental degradation.
If an area so densely populated by a growing number of people to the environment may be seriously affected. The scenery is gradually reduced, the growing stream of waste products are stored in landfills or within the habitats themselves, which constitute a danger to public health. The rising demand for energy will lead to the construction of ever larger plants that pollute the air and water (cooling water) and heating and impoverish biodiversity.
In a globalizing world, environmental pollution of the external factors are often thrown over the border (dumping into rivers and oceans, dismantling ships in India and Bangladesh). Whether the issue is brought forward to next generations (the youth will probably invent a technology that solves all problems).
Especially the Western countries through the development of transport, food preservatives and plastics become less dependent on the surrounding area. Thus, it is possible to slide the effects of overuse and pollution in space and in time, and in others to pass. The shearing of the negative externalities is partly because the external factors are not included in the price of a product or service. No one pays directly for the pollution of the air, or the health of someone who has a few years in my work. This allows manufacturers to continue to produce inexpensive and much, causing the negative external effects only increase. As long as the external factors of production are not included, the company ultimately eventually pay the costs afterwards. The socially and economically disadvantaged will pay the price first, because the political and economic strong power can shift from external costs for themselves whether the costs to pass on to countries with low wages and inadequate legislation. Western countries pay eg. Not for the smog in China and India but import the goods from polluting production. Western countries can buy cheap clothes from Bangladesh because they are made by children and people with very low wages and because they are decorated with lots of cheap chemicals instead of more expensive sustainable operations. The large garment industries pay little or no income tax in the country of production. Bangladesh pays both economically and socially, the external costs of buying cheap products that Western countries at very low prices and not take advantage of the benefits (taxes). In this way, maintenance of social and economic disparities and the external costs of pollution are not included in the price.
At this moment (December 2014) trying some companies do to reduce external costs (hidden costs) identified. There is a price tag attached to deforestation, CO2 or polluting land and air. The company helps businesses to true price the true invisible total price (the value of natural capital) mapping, making the environment less burdened because consumers and producers pay for depletion and environmental degradation and pollution. A good method of calculation ensures that the damage to basic resources and the environment mapped making recycling more affordable.
It is the ecological return on investment. Transparency herein is very important. The system is probably still greatly undermined by a large amount of free-riders. Producers who do not pass the external costs of pollution, degradation and depletion to the consumer.
A growing demand for prosperity and a growing population from the first and second world countries ensures both a deterioration of the physical and social environment. Especially with the emerging BRIC countries.
The last 100 years, the degradation of the physical environment ended up momentum. Population growth, technological developments and growth in output per capita are the main causes of degradation of the environment. The effects of environmental degradation are manifested in many cases in the longer term.
Gift dumps 80s have emerged in the 50s and 60s and then covered with soil on which a recreational park or residential area is landscaped. Some substances discharged we discover only after years that they are carcinogenic. Emissions from refineries, power plants, engines and farming causes acid rain and in the last few years from now we discover that they have a stake in global warming.
At each transition (agriculture and industry), we see an increase in the degradation of the environment. Where agriculture plays a major role in erosion and flooding of the territory and the industrial revolution by mining has a significant impact on air, water and soil pollution. In other words, the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution affecting the ecological limits of the human and animal (biodiversity) existence. The limits are still under additional pressure due to the increase in prosperity after the 50s. This will exhausting raw materials, water, phosphates and energy scarce and increasingly expensive over time. During the production of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products, there are many toxins in the soil, oceans and atmosphere ended up with long lagged effects (including glass, plastics, CFCs CO2 and other greenhouse gases).
Following the report ‘Limits to Growth’ new laws come in environmental management. However, stricter controls in the environmental management difficult. Certainly on a global level, little is achieved because the collective action on global environmental problems is missing. Environment and climate management requires considerable cooperation and coordination between states. The danger of free riders behavior plays a major role. A State or organization which benefits dropped out compared to all other states to participate.
In addition, there are many non-scientific discussion about the seriousness of the climate and environmental problem. Particularly fueled by conservative neoliberal institutions / platforms (Heartland Institute, Daily Standard, Green Audit, telegraph etc.) that advocate such a free market without any restrictions.
After 1970, the Netherlands has indeed what happens for the good of the environment. The water quality has improved tremendously, CFCs are banned, the ozone hole has become less significant and the standards for ammonia, fertilizers, NOx, SO2, nitrogen, heavy metals, etc. are increased. Collective action can indeed have an impact on the environment. But on the other hand, offset by a sharply rising demand for welfare and long lagged effects of chemical processed products. Both nationally and internationally.
No country is committed to economic contraction and less prosperity. The discussion now to what extent growth is sustainable is still reluctantly. Modern society is increasingly oriented towards prosperity and consumption. That is partly related to status and image. You only do it if you have a good income, car, cell phone, eat meat and a good home. You achieve this by working a lot and hard. So by producing many units (mass production) and consume (mass). Which in turn has a negative impact on the environment. The Netherlands has no policy aimed at reducing consumption. Only an economic crisis through austerity leads to less consumption and lower incomes.
In Western countries, the number of residents over time become less and then stabilize. This may have beneficial effects on the environment and climate. Moreover, the western population will age. New technology focused on cleantech, efficiency and sustainability can provide lower emissions and a healthier environment. The greatest threat to the climate and the environment caused by population growth in developing countries. On one hand, population growth makes for low wages (increase labor supply). Low wages attract polluting industries to countries (China, India, Bangladesh), but also provide a threat in the long term. Within the low-wage countries is also rising prosperity. More people have access to consumer goods. More consumption and more production does mean more prosperity, but also more emissions and environmental pollution.
That rat race: location of labor-intensive businesses (often large production halls with monotonous, simple production work) is usually located in countries with a growing population and are the countries with generally low wages. This also means that geographically, the nature of work. In the developed countries will be more highly qualified labor are available. In developing countries will work more focused on low-paid production work. On one hand, low wages are responsible for that. On the other hand, the laws and regulations in low wages often absent, bureaucratic or corrupt. This allows for easy indirect costs to pass on to people with little protection or where each worker can be easily substituted for another cheap laborer.
Variants of state after the industrial revolution and modernization
Individually each state has its own history after the industrial revolution. Still, you can see the formation of states in various categories divide along a certain amount of modernization has expired.
1) Early capitalist development and bourgeois revolutions
2) Authoritarian reforms from above
3) Revolutions of farmers and workers in predominantly agrarian societies.
In the twentieth century there are in the north and west of Europe and North America arise fairly stable democracies. Been to the center and south of Europe, Japan and South America there are Nazi and fascist regimes. Until the ’80s, and under the influence of Russia, eastern Europe and China established through revolutions communist states. Like in the former Portuguese and Spanish colonies in Latin America mainly weak democracies and military dictatorships and in many newly formed states in Africa and Asia after brief experiments with democratically oriented government are established authoritarian regimes, including many military dictatorships.
In England, France, USA and earlier still in the Northern Netherlands was formed in early capitalist economic development, including commercialization of agriculture and the growth of a somewhat pluralistic political system gradually more liberal becoming political order, which in the 20th century resulted in a parliamentary democracy (B. Moore). Bourgeois revolutions from below were the decisive factors for these economic and political developments (English and American Civil Wars, French Revolution, separation of the Northern Netherlands from Spain by the nobles). Revolutions from below led to a speedier modernization and improved democratic social relations.
The authoritarian reforms from above were mainly in Germany and Japan under the influence of traditional elites with a firm grip on power. Moore speaks of revolutions from above that is both anti-democratic and anti-liberal and were finally culminated in fascism. Commercialization and industrialization came later ascent, but a bourgeois revolution failed to materialize or failed.
In Russia and China saw the two imperial regimes forced to sweeping economic and political state reforms. The political authorities felt the pressure of rebel movements of peasants and workers. Wars with other countries also weakened the authority and power of the state (Russia at war with Germany and China at war with Japan). In both cases the communist parties managed to get their hands on state power. Then sought to lead the communist regimes under heavy duress large parts of the population to rapid economic development (Moore).
The new African and Asian states have largely created between 1945 and 1970. These states have emerged from a previous phase of colonial rule and were competing Western industrialized nations mainly seen as fiefdoms. The colonies were governed from the colonizers (direct administration Eurocrats) or by traditional chiefs and leaders as an intermediary.
Within the colonies were national movements that react against the imperialism of Western countries. These movements grew stronger after World War II by the weakened European states. Moreover, the US supported the struggle for political independence (historic sense of freedom and independence). Most former colonies / new nationalist (communist) states could not only meet the high expectations of rapid economic development. Most colonies were still in an agrarian society and were heavily dependent on the colonizer. State fragility often coincided with about bureaucracy, corruption, inefficiency and financial deficits (Myrdal, 1971). The newly formed states were also deeply divided ethnically and religiously which there was no unity and a strong bond with the state and authority.
The emergence of various movements after the French Revolution (1789 until now).
After the French Revolution created several emancipation movements. There was an end to the only absolute power of the king and citizens were given more rights and freedoms. That went through different movements (movements). Liberalism, Marxism that best matches with socialism and communism, and the amalgamation of the confessional movements.
The ideology in the Soviet Union was born from the ideas of Karl Marx in which the dictatorship of the proletariat passes into socialism and ultimately communism. Private property of the means of production was abolished so that the difference between the elite (wealthy factory owners and regents) and a large group of poor workers was lifted. In a classless society the state would like oppressor and religion as opium of the people disappear.
In 1917 the October Revolution, Lenin broke from giving a ‘democratic’ centralism could introduce organized Communist party was the vanguard of the working class based on Marxist ideology. The policy was determined from Moscow through a centrally planned economy with a powerful party machine. Friedrich Engels was a German industrialist and social scientist who along with Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital wrote and financed.
Engels wrote about poverty and the poor conditions of the working class. Marx and Engels were the ideological founders of communism.
Socialism and communism (18th, 19th and 20th centuries)
Socialism is a form of society based on equality, social justice and solidarity. The collective, whether or not represented by the state / government is key. The highest decision-making power, the power over the division of labor, income, products, and power itself.
The state evens out the economic disparities putting an end to class society. Most socialist theories assume a fairer society that is contradictory thinking with the free market (which only benefit the elite). Socialism is incompatible versus liberalism and capitalism.
Within socialism’s a big role for the engineered society. However, there is debate as to whether the role of the state or individuals themselves should strive for this feasible and equal, just society (Social Democrats, Marxists versus the anarchists).
Within socialism, you have different movements and combinations with other movements such as Nazism: the creation of a unified socialist state based on the entity and solidarity of a nation. National Socialism is not really attributable to socialism because the practice very different unpacked and was also very anti-Marxist. The preference for its own people, its own nation just went against the principle of equality of other people elsewhere out of state. Anything that does not fit in with the identity of the nation was denounced and banned. Within the Christian socialism is the Christian doctrine of socialism (solidarity, tolerance of the teachings of Jesus) combined without it had a Marxist character.
Socialism flourished after the French Revolution in which liberty, equality and fraternity was central. The French Revolution has finally been the engine for the two major trends: liberalism and socialism. The power of the Christian movement became less by the lighting, the abolition of the absolute power of kings, greater democracy for the people, better education, citizen empowerment and the emergence of a working class by the industrial revolution. The emancipation was made possible by nationalist sentiments. The identity of a state and the solidarity of a nation with the nation state.
The industrial revolution is the basis of socialist thinking as the class society became increasingly apparent. Socialism and communism stemmed from a large working class who worked structurally below the poverty line in the factories for people with big capital. This increased inequality in income, power and lifestyle dramatically. In Russia, the workers led by Lenin in revolt against big business and the Tsar (February and October 1917 revolution).
In 1922, Russia turned into the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) with an international expansion drive of socialism / communism from Moscow headed by Stalin (1924-1953), with Khrushchev de-Stalinization (1953-1964), Brezhnev (1964-1982 ) years of the great stagnation, after Andropov and Chernenko Gorbachev coming to power in 1985.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) and the collapse of the Soviet Union (1991) Russia regained its old name back. Gorbachev started in the late 80s still with openness (glasnost) and reforms (perestroika), but this came too late and the Soviet states officially fell apart and the Russian Federal State took over the obligations and liabilities under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin. The fall of the Soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War and the end of the communist period and expansionism. The satellite states were independent states. However, the power of the Russian Federation remained in the hands of Moscow (Kremlin).
In the Netherlands, the Social Democratic Union (SDB) was founded in 1881 by Domela. In 1894 there through a rift in the SDB, the Social Democratic Workers’ Party (SDAP) founded (Pieter Jelles Troelstra). The SDAP performs a reformist course towards reforms of capitalist society. The revolutionaries (Social Democratic Party) steps from the SDAP and in 1918 transformed into the Communist Party Holland / Netherlands CPH / CPN and runs throughout the Soviet Union through the Comintern.
After World War II merge the SDAP, the Liberal Democratic Union and the Christian Democratic Union of the Labor Party (PvdA, 1946). The PvdA was intended as a progressive breakthrough party. Whereby cooperation with other parties in the Second World War proved possible during the resistance.
From 1948 to 1958 Willem Drees sent a number of Roman-Red coalitions (PvdA-CSF) to which the expansion of the social system was central. Besides the Labour Party emerged as new left parties such as the Pacifist Socialist Party (1957) in response to the Korean War and Political Party Radicals, a green and progressive, initially Christian-oriented party. In 1973, working together with the PvdA, D66 and PPR in the Den Uyl (1973-1977) and was tolerated by the KVP and ARP (van Agt). The government fell through many struggles between the PvdA and ARP (CDA). Whereby the PvdA and CDA had difficult relations with each other and the Labour Party was a long time outside the coalition. After the fall of communism merged the PPR, PSP, EVP (Evangelical party) and the CPN in GroenLinks (1991).
In 1994 came the first left-right coalition between the VVD and the PvdA. The purple cabinet first set the CDA offside headed by Wim Cook. In addition, the socialist party founded in 1994 by a Maoist background from the 70s. In 2006, the SP increased to 25 seats.
In the rather right-wing capitalist United States, the word socialism is used as a term of abuse. Within the American “ideology” socialism actually increases the problem by market distortions.
In addition, the United States has always turned during the cold war against communism. Within American culture is protruding above ground level just a good character trait instead of equality for all. In the Netherlands there more Calvinist culture of act normal, that’s crazy enough.
Nationalism is including a political current which the state must be equal to the socio-cultural unity of the nation. National Socialism is also seen as racist imperialism through the issue lebensraum (space to live and urge nach osten). The question is whether it belongs to nationalism by the ongoing victory urge other states. However, it is a political ideology of the unity of the nation is glorified (Germany as uber state and Germans as Superman). Nationalism emerged in the 18th century and was closely linked to the process of modernization. In Germany emerged and cultural nationalism in France and the United States emerged state nationalism (citizenship within a state) during the French Revolution.
In the central and eastern European countries had ethnic nationalism (nation from a nation) on. Also, because there are many peoples lived within large states (the Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Ottoman Empire) and to emancipate themselves from the great empire and sought their own people-oriented states. Within state nationalism the individual adapts to the customs and traditions of the state. When ethnic nationalism attempts the people within the state to emancipate themselves properly. In the 19th century and beginning of 20th century nationalism led at first to tradition formation and nationalist historiography. The identity of the state was more important than the identities of different peoples within the state. In World War II led to the persecution and expulsion of minorities after World War II led to several conflicts within Russia / Soviet Union and the Balkans and some West European countries (Basque in Spain).
Within the nation state was there, a possibility to establish a democracy. Within the limits of the nation state could determine who does and who does not belong in the state and there has voting rights that are associated with certain laws and regulations. European nationalism forms the basis for the state in 1815 during the Congress of Vienna in which many states had sovereignty. Nationalism is based on the unity of a particular group of people based on language, culture, history and tradition. A common religion, religion or beliefs may reinforce this sense of community. But can also lead to conflicts between different common understandings. Catholics felt for years inferior residents against the Protestants because of the history of the 80-year war.
Nationalism may have both left and right movements. Left in a progressive emancipatory citizen movement and the pursuit of citizenship with national civil rights.
Right in the glory of their nation and react against other ideas, other peoples and minorities. In the United States, nationalism often involves patriotism: they are proud of their country of origin or country of residence. It is about patriotism, chauvinism and nationalism, such as the singing of the National Anthem (Star Spangled Banner), the hoisting of the flag and America as the most important and largest state seeing the world by many Americans.
In the Netherlands we have had a number of nationalist parties such as the Centre Party, the Centre Democrats, CP86, Dutch Block, Proud of the Netherlands, LPF and the National Alliance. Currently, the Freedom Party led by Geert Wilders, a nationalist-oriented movement / party where the focus is on Dutch interests and opposes immigration, Islamic ideology in the Netherlands and Europe, open borders and the European Union.
Confessional movements (parties)
The first official party, the Dutch Anti Revolutionary Party was founded by Abraham Kuyper in 1879. The anti-revolutionary name refers to the rejection of the ideas of the French Revolution (liberals and communists). The ARP fought for equality for the public and (Christian) education. The backing was formed by the (neo) Calvinist ‘small’ luyden.
Kuyper put a clear contrast between the religious parties (especially Reformed) and the seculars. He also expanded in 1917 (general) male suffrage (passive women) from which he also received more votes.
The ARP was particularly strong in the rural municipalities / provinces (Friesland, Overijssel, Gelderland, South Holland and Zeeland) and the Bible belt. In the view of the ARP was the ultimate authority of God (by the king). The ARP was somewhat torn by leftist Christian Democrats party (1905) and right-wing Christian movements (Reformed Political Party, 1918). In the 40s split the Reformed Political League (GPV) is set for the freed-Reformed.
The Protestants in 1908 the Christian Historical Union (CHU) and the Catholic People’s Party (KVP) was founded in 1945 in imitation of the Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP, 1926) and the General Union of RK-electoral associations based on the program by Msg. Schaepman. Schaepman and Kuyper committed both against liberalism. The aim was to work together to break the power of the liberals. The biggest supporters of the CSF was in Brabant and Limburg, especially in rural areas. Depillari-, secularization and the emergence of new parties in the 60s and 70s shrank the supporters of religious parties tremendously. In 1980 merged Protestants (CHU), the Reformed (ARP) and Roman Catholics (CSF), which culminated in the Christian Democratic Appeal.
The CDA as clear centrist party governed after 1980 in all successive governments (cabinet Van Agt and Lubbers, except the purple cabinets from 1994 to 2002 (Wim Cook) and the Rutte-Asscher 2012. The CDA also acted previous confessional parties always as stable government party in the middle where or left wing or right-wing parties join. could After the fall of the second purple cabinet ruled the CDA with both the PvdA and the VVD under the Prime Minister. In 2010, the CDA experienced electoral an historic loss of seats. Yet, the Christian Democratic Party ruled with the VVD under tacit support of the PVV in the Rutte I. The most right-wing government that the Netherlands has ever known. This government soon fell making the CDA lost more seats and ended up in the opposition. From in 2012 the VVD supported reigns along with the PvdA / condoned by various agreements by the SGP and CU D66.
The core values of the CDA consists of four points distributed responsibility (not one body as the state, but society as a whole), the responsibility has to be taken preferably at the lowest scale. Justice: let everyone in its value, good deeds are rewarded, bad deeds are punished. Solidarity: ensuring the vulnerable in society on the basis of charity. Stewardship: a man must take care of the earth. The quality of life in the world for the next generation.
Liberalism is a political and social movement that grew out of the Enlightenment of the 18th century (John Locke) and with liberty, equality and fraternity during the French Revolution and freedom and progress (lighting and industrial revolution). Liberalism broke in the 19th century in Europe and America since it was deposited (of emancipated) against the ruling regime (the absolute power of the king, the church and the nobility). Liberalism is one of the dominant movements with different branches (classical liberalism, social liberalism which was slightly more left, conservative liberalism was just right) which vary by country and culture.
Liberalism stands for the greatest possible freedom for the individual, such as civil rights that protect the individual and limit the power of the church and the state, but also tolerance towards each other.
In addition, liberalism strives for a free market in which the government prepares restraint (night watchman state). The fundamental rights of citizens guaranteed by the Constitution (Thorbecke, starting in 1848 in the Netherlands). The state should only influence in public administration, defense and public works (infrastructure). With the industrial revolution, liberalism was a material foundation for the promotion of progress. Economic freedom was the focus as opposed to economic equality, because that was a Marxist understanding that it is precisely from above had to be enforced by the state (liberalism is actually less state and freedom from below by citizenship).
In the Netherlands, the Liberals were divided into two streams. On one hand, the Liberal Union, the Freedom Party and ultimately the People’s Party of Freedom and Democracy (VVD), on the other hand, the progressive liberals united in the radical union, later continued in the Free-thinking Democratic League. In the 19th century the Liberals were very dominant, because many liberal Roman Catholics voted for the liberals (civil emancipation). The Liberals were less dominant after the merger of some religious parties (Anti-Revolutionary Party, Abraham Kuijper, 1879) and the party formation of the Roman Catholic flow (Schaepman). However, the Liberals always shared them in power in the cabinets. Since 1959, the VVD almost always been in the cabinet. In 1966 the VVD had to share power with the liberal D66 with a slightly greater emphasis on progressive social liberalism.
Left liberalism falls under the rubric of emancipation and providing equal opportunities for every individual citizen. Right liberalism coincides with the rejection of the government, a perpetuation of the natural inequality of man and return to the law of the jungle. International liberal is often seen as something left (US and Britain in the Anglo-Saxon model), while in the Netherlands the VVD and right is seen. In the Netherlands, put the VVD opposes government interference of the state (against the PvdA and SP to protect the economically weaker) that the VVD seen as right-wing party in the Netherlands. Criticism of liberalism often coincides with the Social Darwinist character (the law of the jungle) of the flow and the atomistic level: society consists only of individuals.
The classic economic liberalism is based on the ideas of Adam Smith (1723-1790) in which the state should have minimal impact (laissez faire) and the free market will constitute the greatest prosperity for society as a whole (the wealth of nations). The invisible hand creates harmony and balance. In his book he lays the foundation for economic liberalism which found easy entrance in Britain and the United States (as independent in 1776) and classical liberalism (private property, individualism and small government).