Millennium Exchange ’00
After the economic boom in the 90s with growth rates above 4% growth decreased. The Internet bubble of include World Online (Nina Brink / Storms) in the Netherlands, the housing bubble and the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001 have largely contributed to the economic downturn.
The 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center (Twin Towers) in New York and the Pentagon in Washington and running claimed by young Muslim terrorists (Osama Bin Laden, founder of Al Qaeda, the Taliban) giving rise to the worldwide fight against ( Muslim) terrorism.
According to Al Qaida, the Taliban and other fundamentalist Islamic terrorist groups, Muslims are oppressed by the West and Israel and the West, thereby declares war on Allah and all Muslims. It is therefore permissible to commit attacks on someone else’s territory to protect your own faith. The armed struggle against those who threaten Islam is called Jihad. The attacks were at the beginning of the great clash of civilizations (C (l) ash of civilizations): the Western democratic capitalist civilizations against fundamentalist Muslims. The question is to what extent this clash of civilizations is actually a global clash. To what extent is this image framed in the media and how does the reality look real?
After the Cold War, the cultural and religious identity is the main source of human conflict, says Samuel Huntington. The free market economy, democracy and hyper consumption and a more or less secular beliefs stood firm against the very values of Orthodox faithful Muslims who would have none of the values of the enlightenment (freedom, democracy and equality). Huntington was thus diametrically opposed to the theory of Fukuyama (end of human history) with the Western civilization of capitalism and democracy as the only civilization remained after the end of the Cold War.
The fight against a relatively newly discovered enemy controlled globally mainly the era after the millennium. Also because this new enemy now staged attacks on western territory. Previously, the battlefield mainly played out in the Middle East and the African continent. After the 9/11 attacks were the terrorist incidents in Bali (2002), Madrid (2004) and London (2005). In the Netherlands, Theo van Gogh (2004) murdered by Mohammed Bouyeri. A group of radical Muslim youths were arrested and convicted for planning terrorist attacks. Mohammed B. was part of the Hofstad group. After the 9/11 attacks and the murder of Theo van Gogh intensified the debate around integration and immigrants. The political and social debate became more violent and divided society. Pim Fortuyn rebelled first against the ‘beaten by Islamisation “in the Netherlands. The overrepresentation of ‘Islamic’ indigenous population in the crime rate and the increase of immigrants in certain neighborhoods of large cities. Pim Fortuyn criticized tolerance and taboos of Purple (rubble) versus fundamentalist Islam and anti-social ‘cunt’ Moroccans. Especially the PVV (Wilders) benefited from the polarization and the feeling of fear of immigrants and Muslims.
The war in Afghanistan (2001) against the Taliban is the direct result of the 9/11 attacks. In addition, it was also a struggle between Western civilization and Islamic fundamentalist movements. In 2003 retired American English army (Bush jr. And Blair) without UN support, Iraq on suspicion of weapons of mass destruction, cooperation with Al Qaeda and the Reign of Terror (Baath Party) of Saddam Hussein to overthrow.
The weapons of mass destruction and links to Al Qaeda were never found. In addition to economic (oil) interests was a struggle between the Western (coalition of the willing) cultural values (freedom, democracy and prosperity) and the orthodox Islamic values (theocracy, surrender to God, dislike consumerism). Saddam Hussein was captured and hanged, but the country was still in chaos with many internal conflicts between the new Iraqi government and various Islamic terrorist groups. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have cost many lives and billions of dollars with very limited results. Both Blair and Bush jr. Have received a lot of criticism of the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq.
After the millennium expand the conflicts between Israel, Lebanon and the Palestinians (PLO) off. The Palestinians called in the period 2000-2005 from the second Intifada due to the expansion of Jewish settlement, the failure of the peace consultations at Camp David and the failure of the Oslo Accords. In addition, Ariel Sharon provoked the Palestinians and Muslims by visiting the Temple Mount. Later, the PLO lost both the election and the subsequent civil war of the more extreme Islamist Hamas in the Palestinian territories. This also leads to a continuous stream rockets from Gaza into Israel by Hamas.
Iran enters 2005 the radical President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to power backed by the Revolutionary Guard. He, together with North Korea (Kim Jong Il) and Venezuela (Hugo Chavez) an anti-Western front. With its nuclear program and dislike of international regulators it poses a major threat to the West.
The People’s Republic of China joins the World Trade Organization and developing into economic giant. However, western China remains very behind. Prosperity in the eastern regions rises to western standards. The agricultural interior lags behind in development. Also, tensions increase at the border peoples. The Buddhist Tibetans and Muslim Uighurs opposed to Chinese dominance.
In Europe, the Euro coin is introduced in 12 countries. Instead of a European Constitution Lisbon Treaty comes with less lofty ambitions. In Italy and France are more right-wing politicians to power, respectively, Berlusconi and Chirac (followed in 2007 by Sarkozy). The “immigrant problem” and the issues of globalization are in most countries high on the agenda.
Russia is headed by Putin in 2000 another autocracy. Putin (former KGB agent (Lieutenant Colonel)) restricts freedom of expression and puts the power of media institutions. For the ‘ordinary’ Russian Putin does bring peace and stability after the turbulent 90s under Yeltsin and Gorbachev. In the first term of Putin (1999-2008) increased the Russian wages halved unemployment and increase the standard of living of Russians (including through fiscal policy and high global oil prices). Russia became the largest energy supplier to the world through the nationalization of oil and gas (Gazprom), but also enormously dependent on these energy supplies (gas and oil).
The Russian Federation is developing under Putin increasingly to state capitalism. The richest people who criticize arrested on Putin (president Yukos) for tax evasion. The oligarchs had after privatization (1995) more and more in step with Putin. Yukos was led by Khodorkovsky, a pro-democracy reformer who sought corporate transparancy, international cooperation and turned against corruption. After his arrest came the shares of the former richest man in Russia owned by Jacob Rothschild. Putin has strong links with the major oligarchs. Criticism of Putin will be dealt with severely.
Opponents are arrested or ‘cold’ created (independent media, opposition parties as’ The Other Russia, led by Kasparov). Despite the economic crisis, Putin was in 2008 as prime minister (2008-2012), recover economically reasonable by including large oil reserves and strong fiscal measures. Medvedev became president of Russia in 2008 (in a tandemocratie) but the power remained in the hands of Putin (Prime Minister). This ‘potentially fraudulent’ tandemocratie construction could count on a lot of resistance from the opposition which the Orange Revolution erupted in the Ukraine, among others. In 2012, Putin won again the elections with his party (United Russia). Russia gradually became a very orthodox nationalist masculine anti-gay state.
On March 2, 2014 is Russia the Crimea (Ukraine) inside and openly supports the pro Russian population in Crimea. Russia sees the Crimea as part of its own territory (and Sebastopol is an important strategic port on the Black Sea). Within Ukraine breaks a war between the Russian separatists (especially Eastern Ukraine backed by former President Viktor Yanukovych) and the current government of Ukraine (orange movement and advocates of an independent Ukraine, mostly Western-oriented, ruled by Petro Poroshenko). The struggle in Ukraine is an example of a proxy war. Great powers fight their battle (Cold War) by smaller group (government versus independent Ukraine’s pro-Russian separatists) in another region (Ukraine / Crimea). The invasion of Russian troops in the Crimea leads to global economic sanctions against Russia. The war in the Crimea and Ukraine stir up a new cold war between the traditional western and eastern powers. Russia feels threatened and humiliated after the fall of the wall and the accession of former eastern bloc countries into NATO. The West tolerates the expansionist and threatening language of Putin not. In addition, the economy of Putin’s one-sided and highly dependent on the energy policy. West scrambles laboriously from one of the greatest economic crises of the last 100 years. In particular, the EU gets a lot of criticism from various nationalist movements within the EU. The EU is on the one hand not strong enough (always divided), very bureaucratic and on the other hand, once again very dominant and top-down organized (diktats from Brussels). At least that is the criticism of the EU this nationalist Eurosceptic movements (UKIP, PVV, Front National, Vlaams Belang, Lega Nord, FPO). Netherlands is startled by the ‘shoot’ from the MH17 flight with many Dutch and Malaysian passengers over the war zone in Ukraine. Presumably Russian separatists ‘accidentally’ a scheduled flight from Schiphol to Kuala Lumpur shot down over the Ukrainian airspace with a buck-missile.
Putin can easily use a weak and often divided preparation of the EU. A weak EU, an energy policy based on gas pipelines, among others in Europe (Nord Stream) and China and a highly energetic Russian politics of divide and rule makes Russia and Putin seem bigger than it really is. Namely a relatively weak one-sided economy, highly dependent on energy from oil and gas customers and fossil energy.
In Iceland banking crisis breaks out because the Landsbanki’s bankruptcy. In Iceland for years the economy has grown enormously by venture capitalists, rising aviation, tourism, construction and a huge increase in financial sector. In addition to the many failures by the crisis (Lehman Bros collapse), there are also many corporate fraud cases to light (Enron, Ahold and Shell).
To prevent large banks topple continue buying the Dutch State, ABN AMRO and SNS Bank later on. The state pumped billions into major banks (ING). Only the Rabo Bank remains free of government intervention. Afterwards, Rabobank gonna be in trouble by the manipulation of the Libor rates. In 2009, the DSB Bank signs for bankruptcy. Thousands of customers are payment problems and appear to have opaque financial products that they bought many years attached.
New technological developments are increasingly focusing on gene and nanotechnology. Internet, Google and Wikipedia have become a fact of everyday life. Operations such payments are increasingly being digitized. The PC and video games are increasingly a part of the daily routine. The flat screens and smartphones are increasingly replacing the old cathode ray tubes and cell phones where you can only make calls and send text messages.
In 2000, the plan space for the river is published in order to meet future sea level rise better. In 2006, the documentary ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ by Al Gore out. Organizes Al Gore Live Earth causing a lot more familiarity comes to global warming. The rise in oil prices and the end of the easily extractable fossil sources stimulates the search for alternative sources of savings and technology.
The second wave climate from 2006/2007: from a negative connotation to a positive discourse on the environment, new climate policies and new economic opportunities.
Al Gore presents in 2006 at the Amsterdam Tuschinski Theater: An Inconvenient Truth. Also present the IPCC and KNMI increasing scientific articles about global warming. The science is increasing with certain statements / claims about rising global warming caused by human greenhouse gas emissions. The interest was to put more on climate and less on environmental issues.
The second climate wave is characterized by bottom-up initiatives, sustainable start-ups and more movement and climate awareness of major multinationals such as KLM, Unilever, major NGOs such as WWF, new environmental organizations, development organizations (costs of climate change are first noticeable in developing countries) and large-scale sustainable initiatives eg. Urgenda (Urgent Agenda) and the emergence of local energy cooperatives.
The government plays an increasingly important role and the government is also becoming less expected. Sustainability is also linked to new economic opportunities, corporate social responsibility and green marketing (consumer good feel with green sustainable goods and services). The amount of clean technology and the number of sustainable-do-it-zelfers increases enormously and is seen as a huge economic opportunity in times of economic crises.
The link between consumerism (economic growth) and the decline of biodiversity, the increase of pollution and usurping of raw materials are continually being reduced. It is a period when a green optimism got the upper hand and focus on corporate social responsibility. Only VNO-NCW (employers organization of mostly large energy-intensive multinationals) headed by Bernard Wientjes remains fiercely opposed to environmental and climate measures.
Other sounds just that strive for sustainable entrepreneurship can be heard in the association ‘Green Business’. The second wave climate consists largely of ecological modernization supported by a wider group, but with a further withdrawing government, focused on solutions and less on communicating problems.
The period of the second wave climate also has a different story. A story of polarization between climate skeptics (such are scientists always skeptics, but skeptics are not necessarily scientists) and climate alarmists. There is criticism of some small errors from the IPCC. Scientific publications are raised as fraudulent pieces that only his to drag much money as possible. The PVV is rising in the polls after the death of Pim Fortuyn and Theo van Gogh and acts against everything related to climate change has to do. Venues and media as climategate, green audit, the daily standard, Elsevier, have no style and the Telegraph in the public debate and public opinion more foothold.
These media are not only skeptical of climate research but also skeptical of science (often use pseudo-scientific statements) in general. With the rise of the PVV also polarizes the left-right debate by climate skeptics and climate alarmists. Where previously political climate was less pronounced left or right (Ed Nijpels Winsemius) sharpens the debate more and more supporters and opponents of climate policy.
Liberals and conservatives are turning increasingly against climate politics as our own individual lifestyle thus be compromised. Liberals and conservatives were already against state intervention and a totalitarian state. But climate policy and action as a threat to capitalism and the neoliberal paradigm (the freedom to produce and consume as much as possible). Moreover, the market solves everything, and government intervention is patronizing and above all very expensive. Many parallels can be found in the struggle against science by creationists (often conservatives). Where science and evolutionary biology is structurally challenged. Darwinian evolutionary science based on common ancestry does not fit within the Christian ideology that God has designed everything and must therefore be contested.
The period 2000-2010 can be characterized as a period of growing polarization between left and right. A shift from relatively tolerant and liberal views from the 90s to an increasing fear of Muslims including the 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington.
A second major global economic and financial credit crunch after the Stock Market Crash of 1929. Increasing populism both in the media and in politics (LPF, PVV, SP). Visible negative effects of deregulation and liberalization in society (self-enrichment in healthcare, education and housing), the economy and particularly the financial markets (bonus culture).
The financial, economic and financial crisis can be found well in society. On the one hand makes the people with permanent contracts at lower wages or wage freeze after not so many of the crises. On the other hand there are many layoffs, there are many companies go bankrupt, many people have difficulty or do not make ends meet and many mortgages are underwater.
Many top managers in high management levels (Amarantis, Vestia, SNS Bank, Rabo Bank) under fire by paying out high bonuses and self-enrichment (Maserati expensive homes on islands etc.) while many other citizens can barely keep their heads above water. Moreover, a lot of European money to Cyprus, Greece and the southern European countries to rescue banks that are falling over. Much money is internationally connected by outstanding international loans among large international banks.
These banks have little equity and borrow money at high interest rates which one is unable to repay more debt. Greece (2010) and Cyprus (2013), the economic crisis the most noticeable. The Greeks have an economy that is largely based on corruption (national figures forgery, tax evasion, bribery officials etc.), is dependent on a huge state apparatus and a fairly one-sided economy have focused on tourism. Cyprus has a huge financial sector where money comes from dubious Russian investors. Both countries need to indications from the European Commission, IMF and European Central Bank (Dijsselbloem) reform the economy (Troika). In return, receive both countries billions in loans to reform the economy. In Greece, major riots break out among others led by the far-right neo-Nazi party Golden Dawn who turns fiercely against immigrants and ethnic minorities. In many countries, the aversion of Europe and the European Union increases. Europe is as cumbersome, bureaucratic, intrusive and a waste of money given. The gap between the European administration and European citizens is increasing.
The European regulation is often seen as annoying and patronizing, but Europeans do not know what is exactly happening in the European Union and how the board works. Within the European Union (Commission) also is a battle between federalists (one big Europe), con-federalists (a cooperative European continent with the preservation of their own countries with their own regulations) and separatist movements (non-federalists / anti-European movements ). The non-federalists are mainly characterized by the right-wing populist nationalist parties which the interest of the country is paramount (Front National, FPO, Vlaams Belang, Lega Nord, UKIP, Danish People’s Party, etc.). In addition to these right-wing parties, there is Euroscepticism on the left side. The European Union is seen by the left parties as a neo-liberal project where the market should play an especially important role. In the neoliberal paradigm, the European Union must above all interfere with a growing internal market and interfere less with the society in different states. This means that especially entrepreneurs and capitalists have a chance and that vulnerable citizens get even harder. The left wing fears an even greater split in society that is also visible in countries like the United States.
In 2013, writes Thomas Piketty ‘capital in 21st century. A report on the economic inequality of income and wealth at the moment. The book describes the increasing economic inequality in the economy and society, and is a worldwide bestseller. The book describes how wealth is concentrated in the richest part of the population and the return on equity exceeds the pace of economic growth.
This is the hallmark of capitalism in which the accumulation of capital in the long term leads to instability of the economy (Marxist dichotomy). Earned income from a structural less than income, creating a top class and an underclass.
See you grow worldwide protests against the social and economic inequality. From 2011 to protest the occupy movements occupations of tent camps on stock market squares and protests against big ‘undemocratic’ fast money from powerful multinationals and the growing financial inequality in society (Occupy Wall Street). In all countries occupybewegingen disappear after about a year “occupation” again from the streets and squares. However, they often go online on.
Outside Europe, coming after 2010 different underlying groups in Arab countries in revolt. This revolt is known as the Arab Spring. The Arab Spring is characterized by bottom-up movements that are opposed to corruption, repression, flawed elections, price hikes, unemployment and lack of political freedom. In four countries, the heads of state are overthrown (Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Yemen). In Tunisia and Morocco, the people should be more involved in decision making. In many other countries break big riots in Tahrir Square (Egypt) or even civil wars (Syria). But in most Arab countries there have not really changed very much. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia with a self-immolation of a Tunisian Protestant. But the gunpowder for the entire Middle East and Arab countries arose by lifting the arms embargo on Libya Gaddafi.
In one of the weapons depots in Libya, September 2011. Photo: Moises Saman / Dutch HoogteIn the period 2004-2007 Libya could renew the obsolete arsenal example 1.1billion euros of weapons from Europe (fighter jets, Italy, Helicopters, France, small arms, Belgium, Communication, UK, cluster bombs, Spain, heavy and small military equipment, Russia). In every Libyan city were dozens of arms caches funded by petrodollars and obtained by European arms supplies. After the fall of Gaddafi these weapons were massively looted by jihadi and non-jihadi rebels. Due to the lack of a central authority, all these weapons is spreading in the region. Thus, the Tuaregs were quite unexpectedly outwit the Malian army.
Arms became easier than ever. Libya became the weapon supplier for all kinds rebels whether they were ideological or not. In Syria they found particularly weapons from Libya. The civil war is due to the Libyan weapons depots and smuggling has become so large. Due to the poor control of arms depots and supply Libya was the main supplier for large rebel uprising and proxy wars such as the Ukraine (deliveries to the Russian separatists in Ukraine). Currently, history repeats itself in Yemen. Britain and the US are the main suppliers of arms to Saudi Arabia (Arab Alliance). But also supported the Houthi rebels (also received support from the Emirati and Saudi population). The Pentagon message lost half a billion dollars on its weapons in Yemen. Chances are that the material has ended up with the rebels of Al-Qaida. This history is not only comparable to Libya, as well as Afghanistan.
Western countries who have to fear terrorism would first see how this terrorism is financed. With what money and what arms supplies. Currently we are seeing in the Middle East and North Africa, thousands of refugees crossing into Europe. Everyone talks about how horrible it is, but almost no one looks at the financial backgrounds. Right talks about tackling people smokkerlaars and repression, has left it on broader care. Both of them are no solutions for the cause of the problem. Something with butter and head.
The Obama era. Change or not? Yes we can (not)
In 2008, Democrat Barack Obama won the election of the Republican candidate John McCain. Obama proposed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in 2009 to restore the economy in America. The US government is establishing a fund to buy up risky financial products. With government support Obama helps prop up the car manufacturers Chrysler and General Motors. With Obama care gets every American citizen a compulsory health insurance for medical expenses. Ill Americans may no longer be rejected by insurance companies. Obama gets strong criticism of Obama care of the Pro-life organizations and religious right who are against almost all forms of state influence. After the period Bush jr. Is facing the US with a huge deficit and a huge debt. In 2010 the government deficit was 10.6% of GDP and the public debt goes up to $ 8.53 trillion (80% of GDP). Until 2009, the unemployment rate rose to 10.1%. In his first term decreased the deficit and unemployment. In his second term he loses the majority in the Senate (first room) and the Congress making difficult decisions Obama into law by getting over there. Obama also intervenes less publicly on the international stage. When the Arab Spring Obama remains aloof. Obama chooses less clear for Israel and imagines more pragmatic than his predecessor Bush. Obama openly irritated Netanyahu, who in a republican conference warns of the Atomic Negotiations between America and Iran. Obama draws a large part of the American troops from Iraq. A definitive solution to Guantanamo Bay does not. No country wants potential onberechte and unconvicted record Muslim prisoners. Throughout his time Obama is mainly opposed by the Republicans who resolutely vote against any proposal by the president and the Democrats. As a result the country is in crisis for some time. Especially when it comes to solving the debt crisis. The US debt mountain exceeds repeatedly the maximum ceiling. This makes Obama gets potential investments and reforms difficult round. Ideologically speaking, the Republicans against public investment and cuts. The Democrats want low and middle incomes gain the right to basic services, education, employment; Republicans support mostly the rich so that the poor benefit from the trickle down effect. The gap between rich and poor is also under Obama slightly smaller. Many people are still living on food stamps and there are many racist riots break out among the first black president.
The country is torn in many ways torn apart by two rival political parties hardly interact (gun ownership, divide rich and poor, energy and environment, investing or cut spending, central government versus individual freedom, etc.).
Increasing fires (Islamic terrorism and geopolitical proxy wars, cold war)
On January 7, 2015, the satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo in Paris attacked by two masked men. Worldwide protests under the motto: je suis Charlie supporting freedom of speech. The world turns massively against terrorism. In protest image Charlie Hebdo the prophet Muhammad on the next issue. Solidarity for free speech tilts been easy to stricter safety and polarization between left and right. After the attack on Charlie Hebdo, a Jewish supermarket was attacked in Paris (hostage supermarket) and an attack on the main synagogue in Copenhagen in the Danish capital.
Currently torn Islamist terrorism worldwide. The Arab Spring has not led to a domino effect of liberalization and democracy. We see just more chaos and regional terrorism. IS or ISIS has seceded from Al Qaeda and strives for an Islamic Caliphate based on medieval grounds. ISIS commits barbaric killings and unleashes regional wars. The situation in Syria has been for years completely untenable. The towns lie in ruins. Rebel groups fighting against Assad, Assad is fighting against Terrorism. America, Europe, do not know which group they should support. Russia and Iran support the current president. Russia and the West are at loggerheads to the Ukraine. In addition, we have the MH17 problem. The shooting of the Malaysian plane carrying mostly Dutch. A priori the fault lies with the other. Geopolitical games are played. Russia has been suffering from low oil prices and sanctions of the west by the raids in the Crimea.
Worldwide, there are more fires and joined by Muslim terrorism and proxy wars. Where previously the enemies were still clearly visible in geopolitical power blocs (west versus east), will determine this nowadays increasingly difficult. Which party can you support now that later not going to turn against you? Should we sometimes help the former enemy to his penetrating danger.
Already, we see whole populations from Syria flee to neighboring countries and Europe. That divides the countries that do not can handle the massive outflow from Syria.
Scaling and neo-liberalization in the agricultural sector
The scale, the neo-liberalization and globalization led in the ’90s, ’00 and ’10 in the agricultural sector also to major epidemic diseases (especially viruses), including by increasing concentration and international trade of animals.
In 1997 they met in Hong Kong the H5 virus among birds. In 2003 in the Netherlands were both pigs and birds infected by avian influenza on mixed farms. This virus mutated into the H5N1 virus and other animals were also infected. In 2012, a total of 535 million animals slaughtered. This means many animals that live in highly concentrated together in a relatively small country. Besides bird flu knew almost every species various epidemic diseases: BSE (1994): mad cow disease, swine fever (1997), foot-and-mouth disease (2001): viral disease of equines, Q fever (2007): fever among goats and infect humans.
The increase in concentration of many animals (mega stables) and transport (the Netherlands is the second largest exporter of agriculture and livestock in the world) gives an increased risk for infectious animal diseases. Furthermore delivers a large livestock manure Netherlands a huge problem. Animals are seen primarily as an economic product that should compete on price against low-wage countries.
The globalization and liberalization of the meat industry worldwide is creating mega sheds, kilo bangers, opaque controls, meat scandal (horse meat affair, salmonella chicken, meat fraudsters, illegal slaughtering, E.coli outbreak, antibiotic resistance). The increase in diseases success is due to the increase in antibiotic (faster mutation rate), concentration of many animals together in certain regions (many pigs in North Brabant, chickens in Barneveld, etc.), more global transport of animals, new export territories and more liberalization.
Meat production creates a huge amount of methane emissions. Methane is a greenhouse gas 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. The emissions from a cow per year is comparable to the emissions of a middle car in a year. Especially the Americans eat a lot of meat per capita (120kg) compared to the Europeans (80kg).
The problem lies mainly in the emerging developing countries to consume more meat at a higher level of prosperity, making soy and more agricultural land is needed for food for livestock at the expense of forests that hold CO2. The production and consumption of meat from soy, increase of agricultural land and decline of forests and biodiversity has a huge negative impact on the global footprint and is pretty inefficient. For every kilo of meat you need at least four kilograms of grain or soya (depending on the meat: beef, sheep, pig, chicken). On the other hand scaling can also provide benefits for the sustainability of the production of meat. Such as efficient use of raw materials per kg of meat.
The increasing neo-liberalization brings on the one hand, global prosperity. People from developing countries and semi-peripheral countries have greater access to luxury products (mobile phones, internet, TV). Industrial and agricultural industries also improve their technology (scale, efficiency) so that more consumption is possible. However, this consumption and wealth unevenly distributed. The rich get richer and the middle class and the poor get poorer, the differences are increasing. People with a lot of power without major consideration in the real economy (investors of capital) much richer and the income of the working middle class, take people on temporary contracts and the unemployed off (because the cost of living and tax increase).
Capital pays (in shallow), labor hardly any (Piketty). This is partly because the external costs of consumption are not taken directly participate in the price. Worldwide, these external costs passed on to the socio-economic disadvantaged and future generations. Large multinationals do not pay for external costs because they are directed at profit maximization. They are focused on minimizing costs and taxes and put this down to society. This causes the food scandals, human global warming (greenhouse gases), major global conflicts through neocolonialism (oil wars), major scandals in banking (Libor rate, subprime, bonus culture), self-enrichment (Amarantis, Vestia).
For another, the labor productivity per person is rising. But this is also because a lot of labor is replaced by computerization, digitization and efficient production processes (for economies of scale). Labor is outcompeted by cheaper machines. This leads to a greater gap between rich (employees in a difficult position) and wealthy (wealthy entrepreneurs). This process converts the labor market and society under pressure. The last 30 years have failed policies of Thatcher / Reagan (trickle down economics). The split in society have increased, both at global, national, regional and local.
Citizens and workers, these scandals more than enough, but can only partly oppose this neoliberal abuses (Occupy movement, Arab Spring). Citizens are not well informed of what is going on exactly. On the one hand people are too busy with their individual or family life and the frenetic existence. To get around you these days usually have two incomes to support a family. The number of burnouts and depression takes per year per employee. On the other hand, the world has become increasingly complex and we live in a complex post-modern society where truth does not exist. Everyone has their own truth.
Moreover, our society increasingly polarizing between left and right, between cosmopolitans and nationalists, between climate alarmists and climate (human warming) deniers, among hedonists and anti-hedonists, between rich and poor, highly educated and poorly educated etc. policy often sees the cleaner of the same office anymore. People live through certain groups are increasingly at cross purposes. Besides a disruptive society the neo-liberalization puts great pressure on the finite natural resources exhausting and makes the hyper-consumption and mass production for pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and environmental degradation and climate change.
The media, education, research, parents, employers and social environment plays an important role in how an individual or group acting, life experiences or come to a certain conception. The social environment of globalization, rapid social media (twitter, new media, email, facebook, google, wikipedia, online news) changed dramatically.
The life of mostly young people is much faster and more hectic. Social contacts, appearance, extrovert behavior is increasingly important. You should be able to sell and present yourself well. People are increasingly taking a more salable product and competition among them to (X-Factor, Idols and hundreds talent shows afterward). We live in a culture of achievement. In recent years the talent search programs are not turning away from the tube. It is the individual’s talent. Introverted behavior is seen almost as a disease, extrovert behavior is extremely highly rated in a consumer society. In addition, present your talent is accompanied by status. Men compete on the basis of status and talent, women compete with each other in appearance. In young men, the emphasis on competition, status and prove yourself after and especially during puberty. Women are preoccupied with appearance, shopping and care. Commercial Darwinian factors play into these biological factors. There are many extraordinary fashion and beauty blogs and articles for women. On almost all prime locations of major cities protrudes out of fashion, beauty and care shops. Specific TV channels aimed specifically at whether men (RTL 7) and women (NET5, TLC). Individualism, but also group pressure (fashion) plays an important role within neoliberalism. Especially young women are extremely vulnerable to peer pressure. If you do not meet a particular fad you lie outside the group and you have a boyfriend or completely forgotten. You no longer complies to the only biological purpose: the ability to reproduce yourself through your genes. Women feel this pressure more and more by the biological clock. You have less time to procreate you so you should be sexually mature quicker and available to the relationship market. Women therefore fall on older men and not young men. That have not been able to build up power and status, in addition, women are also more physically and mentally mature. Typical female subjects, but also men subjects are nothing but forms of biological evolution. How in a particular group or per individual make yourself as attractive as possible for a sex partner.
The Western media plays a major role. The media has increasingly fallen into the hands of shareholders and is guided by shareholders, advertisers and audiences largely determine the supply. This is tantamount to selling many products as possible and profit maximization. The media message no longer objective. Journalistic values are submitted for shareholder value.
These individual Western neoliberal values (economic and social Darwinist values are increasingly collide with, for example Islamic values. In particular orthodox Islam play tribal family links to a much important role. The orthodox Islam is diametrically opposed to the values of free sex (taboo), competition on appearance (headscarves), hyper-consumerism (Ramadan), individualism (family honor), democracy and debate (dogmatic). It is therefore not surprising that we now see the clash of civilizations. We live in a global village where different values even harder against each other. We are physically closer to live together by technological improvements (ICT, faster transportation throw open borders, immigration), but in a world with completely different values and beliefs. Also cracks within Western society Neoliberalism in the seams. Many people start the adverse effects of overshooting neoliberal policies note. Many mortgages are under water, more children are growing up got in poverty, the last five years, each town has a food bank, the unemployment of the 80s is back, more and more people are in desperate debt, small business owners get little credit more, consumer confidence is very low, there is little faith in politicians and the self-enrichment scandals of driving large multinationals and banks with top salaries and bonuses have been very numerous.
In addition, we are still addicted to consumption, credit and fossil fuels, and yet we see very clearly that these resources run out. The conflict are increasing worldwide. More and more boats with refugees from North Africa towards Europe (Italy, Greece, Spain). Syria has become the Hell on earth. But also in Groningen, the people finished the gas quakes. Groningen wants no colony for BV. Netherlands where it just turns to natural gas to the rest of the Netherlands and there really only insecurity to get back.